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AUGUST, 2012 (ISSUE #14) 


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The Simple, sublime beauty of 



-is from Living Color Add a dash of fire to your plants! 

Frozen cubes of 

hhio* 1 } 

del*** 11 ** 




B S'*«mtijifi 






A healthy and nutritious diet for your fish! Conveniently packaged into 
individual cubes and in a mess free punch out pack, it makes feeding time 
quick and easy and your fish will love it! 




Tropical J^ Marine 

Aqua One products are widely available at most quality pet 
retailers. To find your nearest retailer, visit 

fish contents 

4 About 

7 In the News 


In the Fishroom with Mo Devlin 

17 Fire in the Tank! 

20 Marine 

32 The Redbreast Acara 

Redfish Publishing. Pty Ltd. 

PO Box 109 Berowra Heights, 

NSW, Australia, 2082. 

ACN: 151 463 759 

tye UGnay <^or 

33 Interview: Francis Yupanqco 

shtank by Havio-urynszpan-motography 

'Fish Posing' by 826 PARANORMAL 

Wakiki Aquarium' by Strawberry Kaboom 

lurrn de Barcelona' by Klearchos Kapoutsis 

im unpaid! 

{ bottom row. Lett to .^ , v 

ast Aquarium Exhibit' by Oregon Attractions 

aquarium' by cuatrol<77 

'Barcelona aquarium' by Alain Feulvarch 

'starfish' by Ryan Vaarsi 

Online033 Aquarium' by Neil McCrae 

-to-read magazine 

for f ishkeepinq enthusiasts. 

At Redf ish we believe in the free exchange of inform^ 
r cilitate success by aquarium and pond hobbyists. Ec 
Redfish Magazine will bring you dedicated sections or 
coldwater, marine and ponds. 

Redfish was founded in e< 
Nicole Sawyer, Julian Corlet and David i 


enjoy this 

P/urfo- courtesy: (mjvttj 

Off the Shelf 

Aqua One AquaReef 195 & 500 

The Aqua One AquaReef now comes with 2 NEW SIZES, 
the 195 & 500. This sophisticated marine system has been 
rigorously designed and tested to ensure that your marine 
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water quality! 

The AquaReef contains an inbuilt sump filtration system 
housed within the cabinet, eliminating unsightly piping 
running from the outside of the tank to the filter unit. The 
cabinet contains no back panels, thereby promoting air 
movement in and out of the cabinet to reduce heat and 
humidity build up. The sump provides two stages filtration, 
wet/dry filter with a protein skimmer. 

The elegant design will make a beautiful addition to any 
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To find your nearest retailer visit: 

Aqua One AquaStart 320 & 500 

Aqua One products are widely available at 
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To find your nearest retailer visit: 

Your favourite Aqua One aquarium is back with a twist! The clas- 
sic AquaStart range with attractive bow front design now comes 
complete with an Aqua One ClearView Hang on Filter, providing an 
all in one aquarium set up! 

Features & Benefits: 

• PL lighting included. PL lamps provide brighter, clearer and more 
energy efficient lighting 

• Easy set up and maintenance 

• ClearView Hang on Filter in- 

• Stylish bow front design 

• Available in two different sizes 
and three different colours to suit 
any home or office! 

Suitable for Coldwater, Tropical 
and Marine giving you the flexibility 
to choose the right fish for you! 

Off the shelf « Redfish Magazine 2012:14 » 5 

Off the Shelf 

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Protomelos spilonotus - Photo Brian Gratwicke 

Off the shelf « Redfish Magazine 2012:14 » 6 

In the News 

poor fisheries management endangers sharks in 
the Coral Triangle 

Hong Kong, China - WWF and TRAF- 
FIC today released a new report that 
shows the need for a more concerted 
effort in managing shark fisheries in the 
Coral Triangle, to help conserve dwin- 
dling populations of these threatened 

The report, An Overview of Shark 
Utilization in the Coral Triangle Region, 
examines the catch, trade, and manage- 
ment of sharks in waters of the six Coral 
Triangle countries: Indonesia, Malaysia, 
Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, 
Solomon Islands, and Timor Leste, plus 
the neighbouring countries of Viet Nam 
and Fiji. 

Indonesia and Malaysia are among the 
top 20 shark catching nations in the 
world — Indonesia being the single larg- 
est catcher. 

"This report identifies crucial gaps in 
these countries' implementation of man- 
agement measures and data collection. 
In some cases this reflects inconsistency 
with basic requirements of the regional 
bodies and international conventions of 
which they are members," says Glenn 
Sant, TRAFFIC Global Marine Pro- 
gramme Leader. 

Key issues highlighted include the general 
absence of specific management mea- 
sures for sharks, a lack of species identifi- 
cation in shark catch and trade reports, 
and the general lack of available data on 
both shark catch and trade across the 

Finned Grey Reef Shark, Carcharhinus omblyrhynchos thrown overboard. 

Northern Cebu - Philippines 
© Jurgen Freund / WWF-Canon 

Large shark fins used as trophy display in Sheung Wan, Hong Kong. 

© Jurgen Freund / WWF-Canon 

"A lack of data is detrimental to the sustainable management of sharks in the region and needs to be urgently ad- 
dressed as sharks are heavily targeted in several of these countries," adds Sant. 

Some fisheries target sharks for their meat but the main driver of unsustainable fishing for sharks is currently the de- 
mand in Asia for fins, which are used in shark fin soup. 

"The development of sustainable shark fisheries in this region has a long way to go. None of the countries can cur- 
rently claim to be effectively and responsibly managing their shark resources," says Sant. 

News « Redfish Magazine 2012:14 » 7 

Sharks fins laid out on the streets to dry with Chinese woman working trimming 

and cleaning fins before selling. Sheung Wan, Hong Kong. 

© Jurgen Freund / WWF-Canon 

The report encourages local and regional 
management bodies to examine the fac- 
tors needed for responsible shark utiliza- 

"Responsible utilization of shark resources 
requires responsible management, trade, 
and consumption. Each of these elements 
requires adequate governance and moni- 
toring to provide confidence that traded 
shark products are from sustainable 
sources," adds Sant. 

"The introduction of a comprehensive 
package of shark management measures 
must be a priority for these countries. 
Shark sanctuaries are an important com- 
ponent of this package as they provide 
an immediate and precautionary supple- 
ment to other management measures 
and, in particular, can provide much 
needed refuge and protected nursery 
areas for sharks," says Andy Cornish, 
WWF-Hong Kong Conservation Direc- 

Despite long-standing global concerns on 
declining shark populations due to grow- 
ing evidence that many shark species are 
threatened, shark populations continue 
to decline due to a general lack of even 
basic management, and the plight of 
sharks is further exacerbated by illegal, 
unreported, and unregulated fishing. 

"This report shows how slow the devel- 
opment of sustainable fisheries has been 
in important areas where sharks are 
caught, and why WWF advocates that 
people should stop consuming shark fin 
and other parts, unless consumers can 

verify that a shark product is really coming from a sustainable source, notably with Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) 
certification. MSC is the only credible ecolabel currently available for wild capture fisheries, and there are only two MSC 
certified shark fisheries in the world" noted Cornish. 

"The vast majority of shark products come from unsustainable sources, not just fins," adds Cornish. 
"Sharks are also heavily traded for their meat, skin, and liver oil." 

Sharks play a very important role in coral reefs and other habitats, sitting at the top of the food chain, and help main- 
tain the delicate balance of these marine ecosystems. 

Of the 1,044 shark-related species, 181 are listed as threatened by IUCN, the International Union for Conservation of 
Nature, Red List, while 488 are classified as data deficient. 

Download the full report at: ^f 

Specialised shop selling sharks' fins. Beijing. 
© Michel Gunther / WWF-Canon 

News « Redfish Magazine 2012:14 » 8 

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Today In The Fishrnoni 

with Mo Devlin 

Come on a tour of the 
American Cichlid Association 


-- V 

My favorite time of the year just flew by... 
July is cichlid month. Every year the American 
Cichlid Association along with a host Aquarium 
club stages a five day convention that brings 
"cichlidiots" from all over the country and 
various parts of the globe. This July the Circle 
City Aquarium Club hosted the convention in 
Indianapolis, Indiana. The basic format of the 
conventions are the same, but it always seems 
like THIS one was better than the BEST one last 

This year was no different. Many well known 
names in the hobby were there giving excellent 
presentations that covered a wide variety of 
cichlid topics and categories. Ad Konings, Heiko 
Bleher, Dr. Paul Loiselle to name a few. 

presentation and those of Ad's, Dr. Loiselle and 
Anton Lamboj and the others... it was humbling. 
No convention is without its road trips. One 
memorable event was a side trip to the fish 
house... .that's right-house... of cichlid legend 
Rusty Wessel. Rusty hosted a bus full of folks 
at his home in Louisville, Kentucky for the after- 
noon. Club members were treated to a cook 
out, and best of all, an afternoon with his fish. 
Rusty's fish house contains about 5000 gallons 
of water in 94 tanks. There are fifty-two win- 
dows providing natural sunlight with geother- 
mal heating and air. Best of all, an automatic 
water changer does a 5% water change daily 
on large display tanks and 10% on small fry 
tanks. No buckets and hoses for this hobbyist. 
It is truly a hobbyist's dream. 

One of the most exciting things about a con- 
vention is not only being able to attend the 
presentations, but also meet the speakers in 
person. I spent an awesome couple of hours 
in the coffee shop having a conversation with 
Heiko about some of his adventures.. .and of 
course, photography. And from a photogra- 
pher's prospective, seeing the images from his 

No convention would be complete without the 
fish. A couple of hundred tanks were rented 
by fellow hobbyists selling and sharing some 
of their fish with convention attendees. Across 
the hall, national and local retailers were selling 
everything from driftwood and tank supplies, 
right down to fish food and apparel. 

Best of Show winner - Gtquetm krausii "Rio Magdalena" entered by Dan Ye-Jennings 

Blog « Redfish Magazine 2012:14 » 11 

Children's tank decorating contest 

Next generation offish-keeping hobbyists. 

Sienna Quinn happily decorating her tank entry 

Throughout the week, various silent auctions, 
and of course the big Sunday auction were 
held. However one event that occurs every 
convention is anticipated by everyone. That's 
the Saturday auction hosted by a group of 
lovely ladies called the BITCHes (Babes In The 
Cichlid Hobby). Over the years this group 
of ladies have generated close to a hundred 
thousand dollars for the club, earmarked for 
research and cichlid conservation. The atmo- 
sphere of the auction is electric mixed with 
laughter, libation and of course, bags offish. 

One event that was both heartwarming and 
energized was the children's tank decorating 
contest. United Pet Group donated the tanks, 
vendors donated the fish and supplies. Close 
to thirty kids were given the opportunity to 
decorate their tank from start to finish, adding 
gravel, decorations and finally fish, competing 
to win best tank. From the looks on their faces 
and the atmosphere, they were all winners. 
More than one convention attendee observed 
and walked away beaming with a smile. After 
all, this was the next generation of hobbyists. 
All of the kids who participated were able to 
take their new tank home. 

The actual fish competition was one of the 
best I have seen. The quality and selection 
offish was spectacular. I have to admit that 
my interests were very much weighted to my 
affinity toward the Central American cichlids. 
However, as with most of these shows, you 
can't help walking away with a new found love 
and respect for many of the other "flavors" 
from around the world. In particular this year 
for this cichlid enthusiast was an intriguing peek 
at some of the Angelfish. Sure, I've seen them 
before, but hobbyist Harrison Storm entered 
a specimen called "Blue Ghost" that not only 
made me catch my breath but also won re- 
serve best of show for the division. 

Hobbyist Dan Ye Jennings swept the competi- 
tion wining numerous first, second and even 
third place awards with her entries.. .many of 
which were my favorite, Central Americans. 
If you have never attended a show, and in 
particular, participated in a show, contemplate 
the process. You have to get the fish from your 
tank and transport them to the show, un- 
scathed in prime condition. Judges look closely 
at the fish in the tank to see if it is missing 
scales, has torn or nicked fins, and the deport- 

Blog « Redfish Magazine 2012:14 » 12 

Reserve Best of Show - Pseudocrenalibrus nicholsi entered by Bobby Sutton 

ment of the fish. it is reacting in the 
tank. The move is challenging enough if you 
are bringing the fish a couple of miles. Dan 
Ye transported fifty entries over a thousand 
miles from her home in Colorado.. .a feat 
that deserves a medal by itself. 

Overall there were 210 individual fish entries. 
Top awards went to: 

• Best of Show 

Caquetaia krausii "Rio Magdalena" en- 
tered by Dan Ye-Jennings 

• Reserve Best of Show 
Pseudocrenalibrus nicholsi entered by 
Bobby Sutton 

• Mike Sheridan Tankbuster Award 
Petenia splendida entered by Dan Ye- 

• Reserve Best of Show Ornamen- 
tal Cichlids 

Blue Ghost entered by Harrison Storm 

• Best of Ornamental Cichlids 
Symphysdon discus entered by Florida 

• CAR.E.S. Best of Show 
Pseudotropheus demasoni entered by 
Wendy Zorick 

Reserve Best of Show Ornamental Cichlids 

Blue Ghost entered by 
Harrison Storm 

Blog « Redfish Magazine 2012:14 » 13 

Rusty WesseFs substantial fishroom 
Photo by Li from Monster Fish Keepers 

Rusty WessePs fishroom 
Photo by Li from Monster Fish Keepers 

Rusty WessePs fishroom 
Photo by Li from Monster Fish Keepers 

Mike Sheridan Tankbuster Award: Petenia splendida 
entered by Dan Ye-Jennings 

Blog « Redfish Magazine 2012:14 » 14 

Photography Winner - Hericthys labfidens "Media Luna" entered by Mo Devlin 

Blog « Redfish Magazine 2012:14 » 15 

• Photography: 

Hericthys lobridens "Media Luna" entered by 
Mo Devlin 

I am often asked, "what was the best part of 
the convention?" And regardless of how the 
convention's change.. .either location or con- 
tent.. .my answer is the same. It's the people. 
Being able to share the experience of the 
hobby with so many like minded hobbyists is 
indescribable. I continue to meet both new and 
old friends at every convention I attend. It's 
a five day party.. .with cichlid fish. How much 
better can it get? 

Next year's convention will be held in the mile 
high city of Denver, Colorado. Mark it on your 
calendar. For updates on next year's conven- 
tion and additional information on this year's 
division winners, check out the American Cichlid 
Association's website at 

Best of Ornamental Cichlids 

Symphysdon discus entered 
by Florida Discus 

Trip to Russel Wessel's house - photo by Li from Monster Fish Keepers 










Fire in the Tank! 

Five Red Plants for the Aquascape 

by Meghan Helmer 

ne with the favoured colour c 

maaazine, I have created 

of a few of the most beautiful re- 

plants which exist in the aquascaping hobby. Red plants are often some of the most challenging to maintain 
in the planted tank due to requiring higher than normal levels of light, carbon dioxide, and specific nutrients 
depending on the plant. Frequently, this means the hobbyist must increase measuring and maintenance regime 
in order to care for these plants. While providing the right environment may present a challenge, these stunnir 
ruby plants add visual appeal to an aquascape which make them well worth the effort. 

Cabomba furcata commonly known as "Red Cabomba" 

This beautiful plant originates from South America, and like all Cobombo species, is favoured for its feathery, 
soft appearance. It typically has a golden colouration on the stem and lower leaves, and a pinkish frilled leaf c 
the top. Appropriate lighting in the aquarium should be moderate to high in intensity. Carbon dioxide injectio 
is not necessary in order to keep Cobombo, but will assist with rapid growth. The temperature range which 
this plant can tolerate is between 22-32 degrees Celsius. Cobombo furcoto is < 
propagated by trimming off a portion of the top of the plant and then replanting it into the substrate. Trim- 
mings from this plant will grow new roots once planted in substrate. Be cautious when planting or trimming 
this plant, as the leaves are soft and prone to breakage. When all requirements are met, C furcoto can be a 
incredibly quick grower, and you may find you are quickly donating extra cuttings to your fellow hobbyists. 

Due to its ability to grow quickly, in some countries plants of the Cobombo genus are considered to be an in- 
1 " """ "''"' '" "' l ~ J ~~:d or even banned. Make sure to check your local laws and neve 

Cryptocoryne wendtii 

>ri Lanka, Cryptocoryne wendtii has be- 
come one of the most popular plants in the aquatic 
trade and hobby. While some varieties of C wendtii 
do appear green, others such as the "red" variety 

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shape, and can often vary in length. At its longest, the 
leaves of this plant can grow to about 40 centimetres, 
but it is typically a slow grower and can be placed in 
the middle or the back of the tank. In aquascapes, it 

can often be used to imitate a Tern in appearance, and 
looks excellent when placed near wood. What makes 
this particular plant a great addition to any tank is 
that it can tolerate a wide range of temperatures, 
from 22 to 28 degrees Celsius. It is also not very par- 
ticular about the t 

for carbon dioxide, and can be grown successfully in tanks with no additional C02 injection, 
"crypt" species, C wendtii can be highly sensitive to sudden aquarium transplants or drasti< 
changes. These changes can cause a condition where the leaves of the plant deteriorate ar 
1 - "imong hobbyists as "crypt rot" or "crypt melt". While this can be a source of frustr 

Like most of the 
: water parameter 


Redfish Magazine 2012:14 » 

often the plant will recover and new leaves will form from the root base if left alone. 

nee a Cryptocoryne plant has reached a large enough size 

ie substrate 

ers nave a Tew leaves on mem, tney may De cut Trom 

id repla 



Ludwigia is a genus of plant which has a variety of re 
ast One of the most vibrantly red coloured plants is 
The plant is a slender, tall grower with a green 
colouration at the base and red on the top leaves. 
It is indigenous to North America, and some parts 

Of S0l" +U A : ~ ' — I^U_r_ 

aquariums with a moderate intensity of lighting, 
but it will also thrive in high lighting as well. The 
optimal temperature range for L repens is 23 to 
26 degrees Celsius, and it can tolerate a wide pH 
range from 5.5 to 7.5. Due to its hardiness and 
ease of growth, it is a great choice for beginners, 
or someone looking for a lower maintenance, 
colourful plant. 

Just like all stem plants, L repens can be be propa- 
gated by trimming off the top of the plant and 
replanting in the substrate. It will also send runner 

illy good looking r 
le species Ludwigi 

sd species to offer t 
a repens, especially 

n' variety. 

Underwater the leav< 
colour forms are av 

appropriate environment as described above. The maximum height thai 
40 to 50 centimetres. 

ailable that have va 

lounts of red. 

repens will grow is approximately 

Nesaea crassicaulis 

This reddish brown stem plant has long, slender leaves with a blade-like 
statement in a planted tank. It is native to Africa and prefers soft, acidic 
to 6.8. Carbon dioxide injection is also important 
for health and proper growth of this plant. Light- 
ing should be suitably high in intensity, as this is 
extremely important to successfully maintain and 
grow Nesaeo crassicaulis. Nutrient levels in the 
tank should be closely monitored and kept stable 
in order to promote good health and growth. The 
acceptable aquarium temperature range for Ne- 
saea crassicaulis is 22 to 27 degrees Celsius. 

Propagation is identical to the other stem plants W^ 

in this article, however, when planting the stems 
make sure the plant has sufficient space so that 

ippearance which will make a bold 
/aterwith a pH ranqe between 6/ 


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Meghan Helmer 

un Helmer I 

vays had 

a passion tor 

ish Columbia she developed an 
appreciation for the beauty and 
calmness that comes from being 
outdoors. Although she has al- 
ways owned aquariums, she has recently been able to find 
an outlet for both of her passions in the art of aquascap- 
ing. She also currently manages the fish section of a local 

»T 1 



beginners - and 

tern plant which would loo 
liddle or back of the aquas 

De, and should not 

De crowded Dy a 

tan plants. 


One of the most popular and sought after red plants in aqi 
intense red colour and when multiple stems are planted toe 
that of a bright red bouquet of garden flowers. This 

flower effect is in part due to its soft petal-like leaves 
which almost mimic a rose. 

Ding is Rotala macrandra. The leaves are an 
; it gives the plant an appearance similar to 

it originates Trom Asia, and prefers temperatures 
between 22 to 27 Celsius and soft, acidic water. This 
is another plant where intense lighting is required 
in order for this plant to thrive, and carbon dioxide 
injection is also highly recommended. The maximum 
height for this plant is around 50 centimetres, which 
also makes it a good candidate for placement in the 
mirlHIp or bnrk of thp nguarium. This plant is another 

Reef « Redfish Magazine 2012:14 » 20 

While the m 

sh or cnidarians (anemones, corals, soft corals, 

subtle focus points. Crusta- 

Vvhilethe main Tocus ot most marine aquariums are either Tish or cnidarians (anemones, corals, soTt corals, 
zoanthids, etc.), many include ornamental crustaceans to provide variety and subtle focus points. Crusta- 
ceans are also used in smaller aquariums as either an alternative to fish or in single species tanks. These 
crustaceans can vary from spiny lobsters (family Palinuridae) and dwarf reef lobsters (Enoplametopus spp.) to 
much smaller species such as porcelain crabs (Neopetrolisthes spp.) or anemone shrimp (Peridimenes spp.). 
Many species are brilliantly coloured while others are quite cryptic, some can be part of interesting symbiotic 
partnerships while others are free roaming and can provide interesting behavioural spectacles on their own. 
While many crustaceans are attractive and appear to make ideal additions to mixed reef aquaria, most are 
carnivorous predators and many can be a risk to other inhabitants within the aquarium. 

This article will focus on the various ornamental marine shrimp that are commonly kept by aquarists. While 
the true shrimp belong to the infraorder Caridea, there are several groups also known as shrimp that fall 
outside this taxon. Coral banded shrimp belong to the closely related infraorder Stenopodidea while mantis 
shrimp belong to the more distantly related order Stomatopoda. Most commonly encountered crustaceans 
such as lobsters, crabs and true shrimp belong to the order Decapoda, identified by having 10 appendages 
(usually either 10 legs or 8 legs and 2 claws). 

Most crustaceans are nocturnal and therefore in the home aquarium, they are often very secretive and rr 
be rarely seen. For this reason, species that have a symbiotic relationship with sedentary partners, such a 
corals or anemones, are often good choices, 
especially in larger aquariums. There are how- 
ever, several species of ornamental shrimp that p jM 
will, in time, become confident in their surround- 
ings and even in large aquaria, will become 
quite active, even to the point of climbing high in 
the tank at feeding time to compete with more / f£ ^\\ 

active tank mates, especially fish. 


(S JJ 

Order: Stomatopoda 

Stomatopods differ from decapods due to the 
possession of specialized appendages used 
for hunting as well as the lack of fused body 
segments and having eight pairs of thoracic 
appendages, known as thoracopods. Stom- 
atopods are often divided into two groups 
by aquarists, "smashers" and "spearers", by 
the type of hunting appendages they possess. 
While species within these genera are often 
considered to be pests, there are many species 
that are kept, often in single species aquaria, as 
ornamental species. While the "spearers" usu- 
ally pose more threat to fish, the "smashers", 
which are more often found in aquaria, can be 
problematic for other tank inhabitants such as 
molluscs, bristleworms and other crustaceans. 
The appendages used by mantis shrimp are 
very similar to those of the preying mantis giving 
rise to their common name. These appendages 
are raptorial limbs which are modified sec- 
ond thoracopods that are used in hunting and 
are known by aauarists as well as divers and 


^ray of bee 

illustrated decapods in Kunstfor- 

men der Natur (1904), plate 86. 

By Ernst Haeckel (1834-1919) 

Reef « Redfish Magazine 2012:14 » 21 




a beautiful 'smashing' Mantis Shrimp 

researchers for their immense striking force. "Spear- 
ers" possess long, barbed spear-like appendages used 
to feed on soft bodied prey such as fish, whereas 
"smashers" have a large club shaped appendage as 
well as a secondary spear used largely to crack the 
shells of prey such as molluscs and crustaceans. The 
force of these appendages, which can reach speeds 
of around 23m/s, causes cavitation and a subsequent 
Shockwave from the collapsing bubbles. This shock 
wave can be almost as harmful to prey, often causing 
death or stunning the prey, enabling a second strike. 

(Mantis shrimp) 

Both these families of mantis shrimp belong to the 

"smashers" group and contain most species kept by 

aquarists in single species aquaria. The gonodactylid 

family also includes most species found by aquarists hiding in live rock, causin< 

the aquarist. In a small aquarium on their own, these shrimp can be very fa< 

brilliant colours and interesting behaviour. Species such as the Peacock Man - 

spearer type mantis shrimp. 

iting creatures with often 
s, Odontodoctylus scyllorus, can 

Reef « Redfish Magazine 2012:14 » 22 

grow quite large (up to around 20cm) and can be bold hunters making them ideal for single species aquaria. 
While most smashers are little threat to fish in an aquarium, larger species will pose a significant risk and 
smaller species can be a problem if other prey items are not available. If a clicking noise is heard from an 
aquarium, it will often be either a mantis shrimp or a pistol shrimp. If it is a mantis shrimp it is almost cer- 
tainly a "smasher" and therefore of little threat to fish. 

Order: Decapoda 

This order is distinguished from other crustacean groups by both structure and reproductive behaviour. 
These crustaceans possess five pairs of pereiopods (walking legs) which gives them their name and in some 
groups, one pair, usually the first, is modified into clawed arms known as chelipeds. Female decapod crus- 
taceans carry their eggs within the pleopods then once the eggs have reached full term they are released 
by the female flicking her abdomen releasing the larvae into open water where they become plankton until 
they are old enough to settle onto the reef. Some species are easily bred in captivity and these tank raised 
individuals are sometimes offered to aquarists while the planktonic larval stage in most species is too long foi 
them to currently be bred in captivity. 

Inf raorder: Stenopididea 

This small qroup comprises of only two families 

I ill iWi I MSM ilTi 

iaii inverts ana 

fish. Mix with cauti< 

Reef « Redfish Magazine 2012:14 » 23 

- -&£ 

Reef « Redfish Magazine 

Stenopidae (Coral shrimp) 

This family is represented in the aquarium trade largely by a 
single species, Stenopus hispidus, but there are several species 
from within the same genus that are kept by aquarists. These 
"shrimp" are carnivorous and feed largely on polychaete worms 
and small gastropods, this means that in an aquarium they may 
be a risk to populations of bristleworms, tubeworms and small 
snails such as Nerites or Cerith spp.. The diet of many stenopids 
also often includes algae and like many crustaceans, these crea- 
tures are also opportunistic scavengers. It must also be noted 
that these shrimp have the ability to take down small fish such as 
gobies or blennies. 

The shrimp within the genus Stenopus are known as coral band- 
ed shrimp due to the white and orange/red banded pattern, 
best shown in S. hispidus and also known as boxing shrimp due 
to their long chelipeds and defensive behaviour. Variations to the 

Danaea pattern are Touna in many species sucn as tne smaller 
Stenopus tenuirostris and S. scutellatus which have blue and gol< 
carapaces respectively though both species still possess the whit 
and orange bands along the remainder of the body, including 
the chelipeds. There are species such as the rare S. pyrsonotus 
that vary from this banded pattern but are much less common 
in the aquarium trade. Stenopus spp. do not live peacefully with 
conspecifics of the same sex and because it can be difficult to 
sex these animals, it is recommended they be kept on their own 
unless they can be purchased as a pair or they are being added 


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Reef « Redfish Magazine 2012:14 » 25 

to a very large aquarium. 

The second genus within the family is Odonto- 
zona which is a group of deep water shrimp 
not often found in the aquarium trade and not 
kept as ornamental shrimp. 

Inf raorder: Caridea 

While many groups of crustaceans are re- 

Terrea to as snnmp including mysis snnm| 
mantis shrimp and prawns, the true shrir 
belong to the infraorder Caridea. In sorr 

groups the first pair of pereiopods are modi- 
fied as chelipeds while in other groups this has Hinge-bee , v f 
not occurred. Many species of caridean shrimp Mariana Islands, Guam, 
have symbiotic relationships with other organ- 
isms including corals, anemones, molluscs and even fishes. In some cases this is a permanent relationship sue 
as a Peridimenes brevicarpalis living within the tentacles of a Stichodactyla mertensii while some are short 
term such as Lysmata amboinensis removing parasites from a fish as it moves through a cleaning station. 
Many of these symbiotic relationships are present in aquariums despite the lack of necessity given the ab- 
sence of potential predators and in the case of cleaner shrimp, even without obvious parasites and the lack 
of cleaning stations, they will climb aboard large fish such as surgeonfishes and angelfishes. 

Rhynchocinetidae (Hingebeak shrimp) 

Known by many names such as candy, camel, dancing and hingebeak shrimp, these small shrimp are colour- 
ful and peaceful animals that are popular and common in the aquarium trade. While they are no threat to 
fish or other crustaceans, these shrimp will usually feed on the tissue of corals, zoanthids, corallimorphs and 
soft corals. Due to this fact, these shrimp can be a useful tool in the eradication of pest anemones such as 

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Reef « Redfish Magazine 2012:12 » 26 



Lysmoto omboinensis walks across a rock cove 

. „ r ™_ ,, vv , ^,.~ , ...jmonio mojono. Unlike many 
other shrimp, which fight with conspecifics, rhyn- 

j kept in small or large groups 
with little or no problems making them ideal for 
small or large aquaria. These shrimp possess 
small chelipeds used mainly for territorial battles 
and feeding purposes. 

Hippolytidae (Cleaner/broken back shrimp) 

This is a family of shrimp that contains several gen- 
era that are popular in the aquarium trade and in 

iceful species. Popu- 
t genera in this family include Lysmoto, Soron and 

t qenera in tr 

"■"' ' ' re sought after both for or- 

, >oses, with species 
such as L debelius and L omboinensis being very 

ctive shrimp while species 
such as L wurdemonni considered an effective 
weapon against the nuisance anemone Aiptasia. 
The cleaner shrimp such as L omboinensis and L 
' Melius will interact with fish in the aquarium as 
in the wild, climbing onto cooperative 
fish and removing parasites that may be pres- 
ent. While Lysmoto spp. do not possess the chela 
that many crusta rorinc ' ico "^ Ho-fonH +homcok/oc 

Black moray (Muroeno ougusti) with a White- 

c+rir\oH rlonnor chnmn ( \ \/cmn+n nmh\hnmi\ 

Reef « Redfish Magazine 2012:14 » 27 

Marbled Shrimp (Saron marmoratusj at 
Christmas Island in Australia 

Reef « Redfish Magazine 2012:14 

throughout the day once they are comfortable in their surroundings especially if they are kept in pairs, whicl 
is easy to do since all species are hermaphrodites. Lysmata wurdemanni are one of the species of shrimp 
currently bred in aquaria and often available to aquarists and as with all captive bred species, are a more 
sustainable and often more robust option to wild caught specimens. 

Other shrimp in this family that are popular ornamental species include Soron mormorotus (Marble Shrimp) 
and Thor amboinensis (Sexy Shrimp) which are common and hardy shrimp. S. mormorotus is unlike any 
other species within the family as it is a destructive and aggressive shrimp that does not live peacefully with 
cnidarians or other crustaceans. It is not a species that lives in symbiosis with other animals nor does it have 
any traits that make it advantageous to the aquarium. For these reasons these shrimp are best kept in fish 
only aquariums with no other ornamental shrimp. Thor omboinensis, however, is a small (>f '), peaceful spe- 
cies that lives in a symbiotic relationship with anemones and corals such as Heliofungio octiniformis. 
This family also contains some small colourful shrimp such as Lebbeus spp. which are found primarily in tem- 
perate regions and are therefore of little interest to the aquarium industry. However, for the few aquarists 
that keep temperate aquariums, these shrimp would make excellent additions as they are similar to Peri- 
dimenes spp. in both colour and size. 

the Sexy or Squat Shrimp (Thor omboinensis) 


This is a very large family of shrimp which include many genera of freshwater prawns and marine shrimp as 
well as a couple of genera of ornamental marine shrimp such as Peridimenes and Urocoridello. Many species 

from this family are used by aquarists as "feeder shrimp" for other predatory creatures such as fish, cephalo- 
pods or other crustaceans, however, many aquarists will recognize the commensal species that live in asso- 
ciation with anemones, nudibranchs, corals and other invertebrates. Aquarists may occasionally find species 
such as Poronchistus ornotus or Anchistus spp. living within the mantle cavity of Tridocno spp. clams. 

Peridimenes spp. are often available in combination w 
one unbeknownst to the retailer. One of the most cc 

th anemones and occasionally are sold with the anem- 
mmon species available, P. imperotor can be found 

Reef « Redfish Magazine 2012:14 » 29 

in association with various organisms including the 
Spanish dancer nudibranch, Hexabranchus san- 
guineus, seastars, sea cucumbers and other nudi- 
branch species. These small shrimp are often dif- 
ficult to keep long term due to a variety of reasons 
including predation, competition and lack of suitable 
food. Some species feed on slime produced by their 
host, others are planktivores and some are a com- 
bination of these. Often available in pairs, these 
shrimp are quite peaceful and will often share hosts 
with other species such as anemonef ishes. 

Alpheidae (Pistol/snapping shrimp) 

The genus Alpheus is the group with the main rep- 
resentation within the aquarium trade though there 
are several other genera within the family including 
Synalpheus, Pterocaris and Yagerocaris. An unusual 
group of shrimp are known as snapping shrimp due 
to the enlargement of one of the chela which can 
create a loud snapping or clicking sound used to po- 
tential predators or competitors. This clicking sound 
is a result of the large chela snapping rapidly which 
causes a cavitation bubble and subsequent shock 
wave similar to that of mantis shrimp. An interest- 
ing point about the enlarged chela is that if removed 
by a predator or competitor, the shrimp is able to 
reverse claws such that the smaller claw can grow 
and when the removed limb regrows the new claw 
becomes the smaller of the two. 

Emperor Shrimp (Peridimenes imperotor) 
Photo by Steve Childs 

yeleotris yonoi and Alpt 

D hoto by Steve Childs 

Alpheus spp. are known well by both divers and 
aquarists for their symbiotic relationship with gobies 
such as Amblyeleotris spp., Cryptocentrus spp. and 
Mahidolia spp.. These shrimp are almost totally blind 
and this relationship benefits both parties by pro- 
viding the shrimp with a pair of eyes to watch for 
predators and in return the shrimp builds a burrow 
for both shrimp and goby to live in. As the shrimp 
builds the burrow it keeps a single antenna on the 
goby and if the goby moves suddenly, the shrimp will 

retreat into the hole with the goby following close v,r pnmppinensis on nerogyra sinuot 

behind Photo by Steve Chile 

Gnathophyllidae (Harlequin shrimp) 

While there are several genera within this family, the only genus of interest to the aquarium trade is the 
genus Hymenocera. The Hymenocera spp. are some of the most attractive shrimp available but are also 
some of the most difficult to keep due to their diet. These shrimp require the ambulacral system of echi- 
noderms such as Asteroids (sea stars) and Echinoids (urchins) as part of their diet. These shrimp are only 
small but they have the ability to move much larger seastars into caves where they turn the star over and 
feed on the tube feet of their prey. In the aquarium, it is difficult to obtain a consistent supply of seast- 
ars to support the feeding of these shrimp and it is essential this is considered before their purchase. It is 
possible to obtain seastars that will reproduce by fission and are often considered to be pests in the reef 

D hoto by Steve Childs 

Reef « Redfish Magazine 2012:14 » 30 

single species aquaria. While it should be obvious to most aquansts that it is best to avoid mixing orna- 
mental crustaceans with large predators such as scorpionfishes (Scorpaenidae), groupers (Serranidae) 
and triggerfishes (Ballistidae), care should be taken when mixing crustaceans with smaller "reef safe" fish 
such as wrasses (Labridae), dottybacks (Pseudochromidae) and hawkfishes (Cirrhitidae) as they are of- 
ten specialized crustacean predators. It must also be noted that when adding species that live symbiotic 
partnerships with anemones, such as Periclimenes shrimp, it may or may not be possible to keep them witf 
anemonef ish. Usually the fish and crustaceans will live harmoniously but they must be watched when first 
introduced as there will often be some initial conflict. 

The diet of the individual species must always be considered before being added to the aquarium. All crus- 
taceans will routinely shed their exoskeleton as they grow and it is recommended that the discarded moult 
is left in the aquarium as the animal will feed on it because it contains necessary elements such as iodine 
that will aid in the strengthening of the new exoskeleton. Feeding these animals a diet that includes brine 
shrimp or mysis shrimp will also help them acquire the necessary elements for healthy growth and repair. 
It is believed by many aquarists that iodine dosing is required for the healthy growth and replacement of 
exoskeletons in crustaceans but this is not true, sufficient nutrients should be attained throuqh correct diet. 

Care should also be taken when adding different shrimp species to the same aquarium. All crustaceans are 
either carnivores or omnivores and most will feed on fellow crustaceans if the opportunity arises, even to 
the point that some are cannibalistic. Even if two species are seen together in an aquarium, this does not 
mean the combination will always work, especially if it is attempted in a smaller aquarium. It is not uncom- 
mon for aquarists to keep Lysmata amboinensis with Stenopus hispidus but in some cases the latter can 
become aggressive and kill the smaller less aggressive shrimp. In some cases such as with some stenopids, 
other crustaceans are a preferred prey item and they should not be kept together under any circumstances. 


7 ' 

ps requn 

Reef « Redfish Magazine 2012:14 » 31 

The Simple, sublime beauty of 

the Redbreast Acara 

Name: Loetocoro dorsigero 

Common name: Redbreast Acara, Smiling Acara 
Family: Cichlidae 

Maximum size: 6-8cm 

Origin: Endemic to South America in the Amazon 
River basin. Collections exist for the Guapore River 
drainage, Parana River basin in Argentina, Brazil 

Aquarium: The species is small-growinc 
relatively peaceful. A pair can be easily \ 

relatively peaceful. A pair can be easily noused in a 
40-80L aquarium. The aquarium should be densely 
planted and the water neutral to acidic in pH. The 
use of driftwood in the aquarium is useful in water 
conditioning. Depending on the size of the aquari- 

um, trie number ot ditner Tisn snouid De varied as 
these assist in preventing these small cichlids from 
becoming too shy. Mountain Cloud Minnows (Ton- 
ichthys olbonubes) make an excellent choice that 
are hardy and won't bother fry. Prepared foods 

are readily accepted, though aquarists interested in 
breeding should condition suitable pairs with frozen 
foods to ensure optimum health. 

ceps, l oroouoioe 

Similar species: Loetocoro curviceps, L. or 
(Buckelkopf), L flovilobris, L. thoyeri and L 

Breeding: Like its care, the species is relatively 
straightforward to breed. Good stock are impor- 
tant, be sure you have high quality fish of known 
origin before you undertake breeding. The species 
is a typical cichlid open-spawner with advanced 
brood care. The pair will clean a rock or wood 
surface and lay their eggs. Post hatching the 
parents will often move fry to a shallow depres- 
sion in the gravel. Once free-swimming the fry are 
easy to feed on microworms or baby brine shrimp. 
Parental care can be a bit fickle (particularly with 
new parents). Watch for signs of disinterest in the 
parents, or an interest in spawning again before 
removind the parents. 

Tropical « Redfish Magazine 2012:14 » 32 


Francis Yupangco 

To aquarists familiar with National Geo- 
graphic' s TV series "Fish Tank Kings" 
Francis Yupangco needs no introduc- 
tion. Francis has been keeping, selling 
or involved with fish tanks for most of 
his life. Redfish was lucky enough to sit 
down and have a chat with Francis about 
how he got to where he is, and about his 
interest in aquariums. 

Francis began his flshkeeping career 
very young with a Betta, his interest in 
fish was such that by age 14 he was work- 
ing at local fish shop in Vancouver, Can- 
ada - his hometown. At 17 he was head- 
hunted by Vancouver Aquarium, where 
he worked as a aquarist, researcher and 
marine biologist - mentored by Dr. Dr. 
Jeffrey Burton Marliave, an acknowl- 
edged expert on ichthyoplankton. We 
asked Francis about his roles after leav- 
ing Vancouver. 

'After 7 years at Vancouver Aquarium I 
moved to Saudi Arabia and worked for 
a company called Issham Aquatics, the 
largest exporter of Red Sea marine fish 
in the world.' 

It was this time in Saudi Arabia that 

Yupangco got a taste of project management and large scale constructions. Asked about his 

time in Saudi Arabia, Francis said: 

' I was the project manager for the first public aquarium in Saudia Arabia 1 in the gulf coast 
city of Al-Khobar. 'It was a lot of fun and we got build a fabulous public aquarium (Prince 
Sultan Science centre or SciTech for shorty this was a big change to his past experience in 
animal husbandry, in Francis' words he went from 'being an aquariast and taking care of 
animals, to now organising contractors, making sure acrylic was installed properly etc. It 
was quite a trial by fire. Generally you would start with a small project and slowly move up 
but I went straight into a big project. 1 There were 'lots of sleepless nights but it turned out 
well, opened on time and was a huge success 1 . 

After completing SciTech, Francis received an opportunity he couldnt turn down. It was an 
opportunity with Issham Aquatics to 'build a 2,300 gallon coral tank on a yacht which was a 
cool challenge. Gallon for gallon its probably the most expensive tank in the world. 1 There is 
a 'lot of complex technology in it 1 and to test it, Francis said he got to 'Sail from Nice to Egypt 
in terrible conditions 1 and while he got seasick the tank thrived. Kevin Erickson, an Ameri- 

Interview « Redfish Magazine 2012:14 » 33 

can biologist who was doing his PhD in Australia, was hired to take care of the yacht's live 
coral tank full time. 

After this, Yupangco took up a position as Director of Operations for Issham Aquatics. 

'Issham Aquatics is a huge public aquarium conduction and operation company in the 
Middle East. At the moment there are 6 or 7 public aquariums in the Middle East and I be- 
lieve Issham built all of them. 1 By now aged 27, Yupangco led a staff of 200 and built some 
amazing systems including 'the world's largest residental aquarium of half a million gallons 
in Riad, an aquarium in the middle of the desert with a 60 foot long tunnel, 8000 fish, 33 
sharks and a dozen stingrays. 1 

We asked Francis how his association with Living Color began and he said 'we were puchas- 
ing a lot of corals from Living Color. I approached Mat (Mat Roy, President of Living Color) 
and ashed if he would be interested in forming a joint venture. We formed Living Color 
Dubai, a successful collaboration between Living Color and Issham Aquatics. 1 

After living abroad for over 5 years, Yupangco said that he wanted to move closer to home/ 
family in North America, and 'I accepted a job with Living Color, where I've been for 3 years 
now. 1 'Living Color's based near Miami, Florida. 'A location that features great diving, is the 
heart of aquaculture in the USA as it's the perfect temperature 1 . 

Francis describes Living Color's undertakings as '... a purely design and manufacturing 
company. We do approximately 70% commerical public aquarium work and ~30% high end 
residental installations. All work is custom made, every tank is unique. In a busy year we do 
around 100 tanks 1 he said. 

Living color began working with National Geographic to produce 'Fish Tank Kings' and 
went on to work with many public aquariums which were documented in the first season of 
the show. They built a giant octopus aquarium for Tennessee Aquarium, for example. 

When asked about his favourite installation, Francis said he had just visited it that day, an 
installation for the Conservency of Southwest Florida. This was a collaboration with Cam- 
bridge Seven, in his words 'the best architecture and designers in the Held 1 . In the two years 
he had been working on the installation, he had been involved mainly in design and qual- 
ity control in the factory, so today had been the first time he had got to see the aquarium on 
site. This was the largest project they had done with Cambridge Seven and 'worked out to be 
amazing 1 . 

When asked about how the skills and knowledge aquired as a fish tank hobbyist, working 
in a retail pet store help him in his current role designing multimillion dollar aquariums, 
Franis said that the basic biological pricipals are important to know and understand in 
order to scale up and build large exhibits. He said 'think about your own tank in which you 
need to clean the gravel... when we designed the project in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, I designed 
an integrated system, whereby we could plug in giant hoses to vaccuum the gravel under- 
water with divers. ..all the basic fundamentals learned maintaining small aquariums are 
transferable 1 . 

Francis told us that he primarily designs marine set-ups, however, he did design one fresh- 
water system, a Lake Malawai tank, which was featured on Fish Tank Kings. He was able to 
take viewers on a tour of a fish farm which was the largest breeder of African Cichlids in the 
world. He went on to tell us that his favourite freshwater species is Discus and that he bred 
them when he was in high school. He said he would love to do a planted aquarium for the 

Interview « Redfish Magazine 2012:14 » 34 

show, however, most clients are interested in marine systems. 

Redfish Magazine asked Francis the all important question of whether he still has a fish 
tank at home. As we suspected, he agreed that it was a bit like taking your work home, so the 
last aquarium he had was when he was in university back in 2000. We're pleased to report 
he did recently succumb at least a little and currently has a nano reef aquarium on his desk 
with aquacultured coral, fish and shrimp. 

Francis went on to talk about his passion for fishkeeping: 

Tve been a lifelong ftshkeeper, and I really want to see the fish hobby thrive 7 . T think IV s a 
great tool to teach children about the environment'. 

Francis said he had been approached by animal activists in the past, and people who were 
concerned about keeping fish in captivity. In response, Francis said C I say that people care 
about things they know. If they don't keep them first, they won't learn and care about the 
marine environment 7 . 'Many people who live in countries of a large landmass, like the US 
and Australia, may never get to see the ocean, or go diving, so what better way to show them 
than having a public aquarium so they can see these animals 7 . ...'allow them to develop an 
emotional connection with them so they are more likely to protect thenf. 

Redfish Magazine would like to thank Francis for taking the time to talk to us and wish him 
further success in his designing endevours in the future. 

Interview « Redfish Magazine 2012:14 » 35 

CAIRNS MARINE certified by 

« Marine Aquarium Council 


<r < «a iS 


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CAIRNS MARINE is the worlds leading supplier / 
of sustainably sou reed marine aquarium specimens. 1 ^ 

i i i i i i i i i s - ><>w i v /~\ t — rv\ ^^ \r i ^\ /^>%. s- •-n. r^r\ \ 


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Community Directory 


Advanced Aquarist 

Anglia Reef Club 

Bracknell Aquarist Society 

Bristol Aquarists Society 

Bristol Tropical Fish Club 

British Cichlid Association 

British Killifish Association 

British Koi Keeeper's Society (BKKS) 

See website for UK sections 

Catfish Study Group 

Dunstable & District Aquarist Society ul</ ul</ 
http://www.bristoltropicalf ul</ ul</ 

Federation of Northern Aquarium Societies (FNAS) 

See website for list of associated clubs ul</ 

Greater Manchester Cichlid Society 

Hounslow & District Aquarists Society 

llford &District Aquarists & Pondkeepers Society 

Preston and District Aquatic Society 

Reigate and Redhill Aquarist Society 

Ryedale Aquarist Society 

Southend Leigh and District Aquarist Society 

Strood and District Aquarist Society 


Federation of Scottish Aquarist Societies. 

See website for list of associated clubs 

Aberdeen Fish Keeper's Club 

Greenock & District Aquarist Society 

Fair City Aquarist Society 

Union of Scottish Aquarists 

Capital Aquarist Society, Edinbourgh 

Dundee & District Aquarist Society 

Glenrothes Aquarist Society 

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Lanarkshire Aquarist Society 

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Perth Aquarist Society 

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Workington & District Aquarist Society 


Newport & District Aquarist Society 


Irish Midlands Aquatic Society</scottish_aquarium_society.htm</greenock&district_as.htm ul</</capital_aquarists_society.htm</dundee&district_aquarist_society.htm</glenrothes_aquarist_society.htm</grangemouth_aquarist_society.htm</musselburgh_a_s.htm</perth_aquarist_society.htm</poecilia_scotia.htm 

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a f ishkeeping club or society on the Continent we'd love to 

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Community « Redfish Magazine 2012:14 » 39 

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